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        Comments on Guy Steele's comments on Future Computer Language

      Bob Armstrong  	  Mar 10, 12:07 pm
      Newsgroups: comp.lang.apl
      Date: 10 Mar 2005 12:07:12 -0800
      Local: Thurs, Mar 10 2005 12:07 pm
      Subject: DDJ : Guy Steele : "APL looks rather strange ... "
      2005 Dr. Dobb's Journal Excellence in Programming Award goes to
      Guy Steele Jr. , A Sun Fellow & Distinguished Engineer
        Steele was one of the handful of people who requested a copy of
        my APL79 poster paper on paths around n-cubes : .
        Some quotes from the interview with him in the April issue :
      GS: Performance means shortening the time for the computer to solve the
      problem. Productivity means shortening the time between posing the
      problem to the programmer and having the answer. It's important to make
      the programmer efficient as well as the program.
      DDJ: And how does one do that?
      GS: We have ideas for improvements to programming languages which might
      make programmers more productive by relieving them of more of the
      mechanical and administrative burdens of getting a program to work.
      We're looking at automated testing, more rigorous type systems, new
      languages. At Sun, we're looking at the conjecture that making
      programming languages closer to traditional mathematical notation can
      make things easier for the scientific programmer.
      DDJ: APL or Mathematica?
      GS: APL looks rather strange to a working mathematician or physicist.
        [ this from the co-author of  Common Lisp  and  Scheme ] 
      Fortran is a little bit like math, but not a lot. Where did the
      asterisk for multiplication come from? Fortran was invented on machines
      intended for accounting. What if we tried very hard to make a
      programming language look like mathematics and took advantage of
      Unicode? We're finally getting good support for full mathematical
      character sets in text editors.
      We're designing a programming language called "Fortress." Kind of a
      takeoff on Fortran...
      DDJ:...wedded to the zeitgeist of our troubled times!
      GS: Well, we did have in mind a programming language with greater
      security through a stronger type system. We're trying to take some of
      the security features of Java, and mathematical notation, and good
      ideas already in Fortran and roll them all together.
      DDJ: Design flaw in Java? Tradeoff?
      GS: There was a conscious design decision for object-oriented rather
      than closure-oriented programming.
      Interestingly, when anonymous inner classes were introduced into Java,
      we had a full implementation that made them act like closures. In
      particular, if you did up-level references to variables, you could
      assign as well as read. We got push-back from users, "We don't want
      this, we prefer an implementation in which you can only read the
      up-level variables." In order to support the full-blown closure
      implementation, it was necessary to do heap allocation implicitly. At
      that time, the users were still a little nervous about heap allocation
      and garbage collection. They felt more comfortable if places where heap
      allocation took place in Java were always explicitly flagged by the new
      keyword. Nowadays, heap allocation in Java is better understood and
      that feature could be added easily, but there's no call for it.
      I have a theory that programming languages have lifetimes. Java will
      probably be around another 20 years. It's time for a new programming
      language to come along.
        [ APLers had no problem leaving heap management up to the
         implementers right from the get-go in the `60s . Java was
         stale coffee when it was brewed . ]
      DDJ: Does Fortress look like Java and C++?
      GS: We're doing a research prototype rather than a product prototype,
      so we feel free to try out a bunch of crazy ideas. Syntactically, we're
      trying more to be inspired by mathematics than by Java. The object
      organization is Java-inspired. Array handling is Fortran and APL
      inspired. Other influences are MatLab and Mathematica. We're also
      trying to add checking of dimensional units such as kilograms, meters,
      and feet. We had a paper [E. Allen, D. Chase, V. Luchangco, J.W.
      Maessen, G.L. Steele Jr., "Object-Oriented Units of Measurement,"
      OOPSLA 2004,] in
      the last OOPSLA about that.
        I do like the idea of labeled ( "dimensional" ) quantities like
         100.00$ % 5gm , maybe someone will implement them in forth.CoSy
        in some number of years , but the foundation of the CoSy
        for-the-rest-of-my-life I am now creating  I am positive will be
        more simple , transparent , extensible , and personally productive
        than the  Fortress  Sun Corp's  High Productivity Computing
        committee will produce .
        They are starting a generation behind .
       I invite anybody interested in where I'm heading to drop me a line
       to be kept up to date on our progress .
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